X.509 Client Certificates

Spinnaker supports using x.509 certificates for authentication.

X.509 client certificates utilize public-key infrastructure (PKI) in order to authenticate clients. X.509 can be used simultaneously with one of the other authentication methods or by itself. Users commonly generate a certificate for their non-UI or script based clients, as this is generally easier than dynamically obtaining an OAuth Bearer token or SAML assertion.


If you followed the SSL guide, you may already have generated a certificate authority (CA). Using this CA, we can generate a client certificate using openssl.

  1. Create the client key. Keep this file safe!

    openssl genrsa -des3 -out client.key 4096
  2. Generate a certificate signing request for the server. Ensure the Common Name is set to a non-empty value.

    openssl req -new -key client.key -out client.csr
  3. Use the CA to sign the server’s request. If using an external CA, they will do this for you.

    openssl x509 -req -days 365 -in client.csr -CA ca.crt -CAkey ca.key -CAcreateserial -out client.crt
  4. (Optional) Format the client certificate into browser importable form.

    openssl pkcs12 -export -clcerts -in client.crt -inkey client.key -out client.p12

Encoding role information in x509 extensions

The certificates generated here only allow for the authentication of a user’s identity, not user roles. If using Fiat, these certificates are not sufficient for authorization.

roleOid is used for this example.

Client certificates with role information are parsed when roleOid is provided. This OID is configurable and is set via Halyard. The OID provided in the example below is defined here .

Encoding with any other OID can be done by editing the openssl.conf.

Creating an x509 client certificate with user role information

  1. Create a new Openssl config file openssl.conf with the following contents:

    [ req ]
    #default_bits		= 2048
    #default_md		= sha256
    #default_keyfile 	= privkey.pem
    distinguished_name	= req_distinguished_name
    attributes		= req_attributes
    req_extensions = v3_req
    [ req_distinguished_name ]
    countryName			= Country Name (2 letter code)
    countryName_min			= 2
    countryName_max			= 2
    stateOrProvinceName		= State or Province Name (full name)
    localityName			= Locality Name (eg, city)
    0.organizationName		= Organization Name (eg, company)
    organizationalUnitName		= Organizational Unit Name (eg, section)
    commonName			= Common Name (eg, fully qualified host name)
    commonName_max			= 64
    emailAddress			= Email Address
    emailAddress_max		= 64
    [ req_attributes ]
    challengePassword		= A challenge password
    challengePassword_min		= 4
    challengePassword_max		= 20
    [ v3_req ]
    keyUsage = nonRepudiation, digitalSignature, keyEncipherment
    1.2.840.10070.8.1 = ASN1:UTF8String:spinnaker-example0\nspinnaker-example1

    The final line in this file 1.2.840.10070.8.1= ASN1:UTF8String:spinnaker-example0\nspinnaker-example1 is what matters for creating a client certificate with user role information, as anything after UTF8String: is encoded inside of the x509 certificate under the given OID.


    • 1.2.840.10070.8.1 - OID
    • spinnaker-example0\nspinnaker-example1 - Spinnaker user groups

    Note: If providing multiple groups, as in this example, separate them with a new line (\n). The new line \n shows as a %0A in the certificate.

  2. Generate a CSR for a new x509 certificate and the given openssl.conf:

    openssl req -nodes -newkey rsa:2048 -keyout key.out -out client.csr \
        -subj "/C=US/ST=CA/L=Oakland/O=Spinnaker/CN=example@example.com" -config openssl.conf
  3. Create extention config file extension.conf to apply roles when signing the server requests.

    [ v3_req ]
    keyUsage = nonRepudiation, digitalSignature, keyEncipherment
    1.2.840.10070.8.1 = ASN1:UTF8String:spinnaker-example0\nspinnaker-example1

    The same rule for the roles definition applied to this section, as it’s explained in the first step of this section.

  4. Use the CA to sign the server’s request. (If using an external CA, they do this for you.)

    openssl x509 -req -days 365 -in client.csr -CA ca.crt -CAkey ca.key -CAcreateserial -out client.crt -extensions v3_req  -extfile ./extension.conf

Example x509 certificate generated

Issuing the client certificate using AWS Certificate Manager

If you are using AWS Certificate Manager’s Private Certificate Authority to issue client certificates containing role information, you will need to provide a certificate template that allows passthrough of these extensions from the Certificate Signing Request. BlankEndEntityCertificate_CSRPassthrough/V1 is one such template. To issue the certificate using ACM Private CA, first generate the CSR following steps 1 and 2 above. Then, run the following to issue the certificate:

aws acm-pca issue-certificate --csr fileb://client.csr \
    --template-arn arn:aws:acm-pca:::template/BlankEndEntityCertificate_CSRPassthrough/V1 \
    --certificate-authority-arn [private CA ARN] \
    --signing-algorithm SHA256WITHRSA \
    --validity Value=365,Type="DAYS"

You can then fetch the issued client certificate and output it into a file with:

aws acm-pca get-certificate --certificate-authority-arn [private CA ARN] \
    --certificate-arn [ARN of previously generated certificate] \
    --query Certificate \
    --output text > client.crt

Set roleOid

hal config security authn x509 edit --role-oid 1.2.840.10070.8.1

Configure SSL to require certs

If you have SSL enabled, you need to set the Apache Tomcat SSL stack to require a valid certificate chain as required by the Spring Security integration.

hal config security api ssl edit --client-auth # Set to WANT or NEED

There are three states for client-auth - WANT, NEED, and when it is unset.

Set client-auth to WANT to use a certificate if available. SSL connections will succeed even if the client doesn’t provide a certificate. This is useful if you enable x509 with another authentication method like OAuth, LDAP, SAML - when a certificate is not provided, users can still authenticate with one of these methods.

Set client-auth to NEED if x509 is the sole authentication method, or if you want to ensure the certificate is provided AND another authentication mechanism is used.

To revert back to not requiring a certificate after disabling x509, find and delete the client-auth field set in ~/.hal/config.

Enable x509

hal config security authn x509 enable

Optional settings

A subjectPrincipalRegex can be provided if the certificates principal name needs parsing.

hal config security authn x509 edit --subject-principal-regex "EMAILADDRESS=(.*?)(?:,|$)"

API port

browser’s client certificate request

By enabling X.509 on the main 8084 port, it causes the browser to ask the user to present their client certificate. Many end-users can get confused or annoyed by this message, so it is preferable to move this off of the main port.

You can move the client certificate-enabled port by setting default.apiPort value to something other than 8084. This enables an additional port configuration that is hardcoded to need a valid X.509 certificate before allowing the request to proceed.


Unlike the other authentication methods, X.509 does not have any redirects or fancy control passing between Deck, Gate, and a third-party identity provider. Connections are either established with a valid certificate or they’re not.

Next steps

Now that you’ve authenticated the user, proceed to setting up their authorization .