Environment Constraints

Environment constraints control how an artifact version flows through environments.

Prerequisite: understand the environment concept offered by Delivery Configs

What is an Environment Constraint?

Environment constraints control how an artifact version flows through environments. A constraint can be as simple as ensuring an artifact isn’t promoted into Environment B unless it has successfully deployed into Environment A. Constraints can also specify that an artifact needs to have a canary evaluated by Kayenta before it can be deployed into an environment, while also defining how the canary should be deployed and evaluated.

Defining Constraints

Every environment defined in a Delivery Config supports a top-level constraints list property.

The following example ensures that artifact versions are only promoted into the staging environment after successful deployment to the test environment, and only if the current time is within the days Monday thru Thursday and the hours of 8am and 4pm.

- name: staging
  resources: # omitted for brevity
  notifications: # omitted for brevity
  - type: depends-on
    environment: testing
  - type: allowed-times
    - days: Monday-Thursday
      hours: 8-16

Constraint Types and Ordering

Constraints are currently bucketed into stateless and stateful types. Stateless constraints can always be fully evaluated in a single pass and do not interact with users or external systems. The current stateless constraint types are depends-on and allowed-times.

Stateless constraints are always evaluated first, and must be satisfied before any stateful constraints are evaluated. Stateful constraints are a powerful construct, with the ability to mutate cloud state during their evaluation. Examples include deploying a new artifact version into an environment for the sake of canary analysis, or launching a smoke-test pipeline against a prior environment, gating promotion on its success.

This implicit ordering by type ensures that a pipeline constraint gating promotion to a production environment on smoke-tests run against a prior environment will only invoke the test pipeline after the artifact version under evaluation is deployed to the prior environment.

All stateful constraints can be manually overridden, such as when a canary failure is deemed to be expected for a given change, or a false alarm. When an environment defines multiple constraints, all must pass before a new artifact is promoted into the environment.

Available Constraints

Depends On

The depends-on constraint ensures that an artifact version will not deploy into the environment it is attached to, unless it has successfully deployed into the dependent environment.

Parameters environment: The name of the dependent environment. It must be defined within the same delivery config as the target environment containing the constraint.


  - type: depends-on
    environment: testing

Allowed Times

The allowed-times constraints provides a time based gate on promotion into an environment. It can be used to ensure promotion to an environment only occurs during business hours, or quiet times.

Parameters windows: A list of time windows; multiple windows can be specified on a single constraint. The constraint is satisfied if the current time matches any single window. tz: Optional The timezone to evaluate the constraint in. This is optional, by default the timezone specified via the default.time-zone spring configuration property is used, not the JVM or OS timezone. If your organization operates in a single timezone, this property should likely be set that timezone.

Window Parameters hours: Supports ranges (i.e. 10-20) and comma separated lists (i.e. 5,6,7,8) or a combination of the two. days: Supports aliases (weekdays and weekends), as well as ranges and comma separated lists of days in their java standard (java.util.Calendar) short (mon-thu) or full (monday-thursday) names.


  - type: allowed-times
      - days: Monday-Wednesday,Friday
        hours: 8-16
      - days: Thursday
        hours: 14-16

This allows artifacts to deploy into the environment between 8am-4pm on Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, and Friday or between 2-4pm on Thursday.

Manual Judgement

The manual-judgement constraint prevents an artifact from deploying to an environment without explicit approval via an external API client. UI support for approving or rejecting judgements as well as an interactive slack bot are under development but direct use of Spinnaker’s REST API is currently required to answer a manual judgement. See Interacting with and Overriding Constraints for details.


timeout: (Optional); Type: Duration; Default Value: PT1W

If judgement is not provided within this time (starting when the constraint is initially evaluated for a given environment and artifact version), it is considered rejected.


  - type: manual-judgement


The pipeline constraint launches a pipeline, optionally passing along constraint provided trigger parameters. The pipeline execution is periodically monitored and the constraint status derived from the final status of the execution.


pipelineId: Type: String

The configuration id of the pipeline to be executed during constraint evaluation. If unknown, edit the given pipeline from the Spinnaker UI. From the edit configuration view, the pipelineId is the final part of the URL. The pipeline can be a part of any application, but must be runnable via the service account defined in the target environment’s delivery config.

retries: (Optional); Type: Integer

If set, pipeline failures will be retried up-to this many times if pipeline execution goes terminal for any reason. The constraint evaluation will fail once retries are exhausted.

parameters: (Optional); Type: Map<String, Object>

If set, the contents of this map are passed as trigger parameters when executing the pipeline. Expressions are not currently supported.

timeout: (Optional); Type: Duration; Default Value: PT2H

If the pipeline execution does not complete within this time, it is considered a failure.


  - type: pipeline
    pipelineId: fn0rd5d1-6217-4fcf-aa3d-ce7f59af9cac
    retries: 1
      foo: bar


The canary constraint supports deploying experiment and control clusters across multiple regions within the target environment. Experiment/control cluster health is evaluated via Kayenta and the clusters removed once evaluation is complete. By default, a multi-region constraint must pass in all regions for the constraint to pass but this behavior is configurable.

The canary constraint currently only supports EC2. Keel configuration properties may need to be set depending on how Kayenta accesses time-series data and persists state.

System Configuration Properties

defaults.constraint.canary.metrics-account: Default Value: atlas-global.prod

Unless your time series data is stored in Netflix Atlas, this should be set to the equivalent value used with the Orca Kayenta stage.

defaults.constraint.canary.storage-account: Default Value: s3-objects

This should be set to the value of Kayenta’s default-storage-account.


canaryConfigId: Type: String

The configuration id of the canary rules used for evaluation. If unknown, select a specific configuration from Spinnaker’s Canary Config UI. The canaryConfigId is the final segment of the resulting url.

beginAnalysisAfter: (Optional); Type: Duration; Default Value: PT10M

After the deployment of canary clusters completes, Spinnaker will wait this amount of time before launching the first Kayenta analysis. This allows for the filtering or inclusion of service warmup behavior in the analysis.

canaryAnalysisInterval: (Optional); Type: Duration; Default Value: PT30M

After the completion of any beginAnalysisAfter delay, Kayenta analysis are launched at this recurring interval, until post-beginAnalysisAfter runtime exceeds the lifetime parameter.

lifetime: (Optional); Type: Duration; Default Value: PT30M

Maximum runtime for the canary, exempting deployment times and any initial delay configured via beginAnalysisAfter.

cleanupDelay: (Optional); Type: Duration; Default Value: 0

When a canary fails due to a failing Kayenta score, Spinnaker will wait this amount of time before deleting canary clusters. Useful if engineers desire an opportunity to manually inspect instances involved in the failure.

marginalScore: Type: Integer

If Kayenta generates a canary score below the marginalScore, it is considered an immediate failure.

passScore: Type: Integer

If Kayenta generates a final canary score >= passScore, the constraint will pass.

regions: Type: Set<String>

Each region will get its own independently deployed and analyzed control/experiment pair.

capacity: Type: Integer

Control and experiment clusters have their min/max/desired pinned to this value.

source: Type: CanarySource

Defined in yaml as a Map<String, String> with the following properties:

  • account
  • cloudProvider
  • cluster

This should refer to an active cluster in the target environment deployed in all of the regions the constraint is configured to run canaries in. Control/experiment clusters are configured based on the source cluster (i.e. account, subnet, instance type, firewall rules).

minSuccessfulRegions: (Optional); Type: Integer; Default Value: 0

If set to >0 on a multi-region canary, the constraint will pass if Kayenta analysis passes in this many regions. I.e. if set to 2 on a constraint that defines a 3-region canary, the failure of a single region is ignored.

failureCancelsRunningRegions: (Optional); Type: Boolean; Default Value: true

If true, the failure of any region that violates the minSuccessfulRegions parameter triggers the immediate cancellation of any canaries still running in other regions.

metricsAccount: (Optional); Type: String

If set, overrides the defaults.constraint.canary.metrics-account property. This may be required in environments with multiple TSD instances.

storageAccount: (Optional); Type: String

If set, overrides the defaults.constraint.canary.storage-account property. Not typically required.


  - type: canary
    canaryConfigId: fn0rd5d1-6217-4fcf-aa3d-ce7f59af9cac
    beginAnalysisAfter: PT3M
    canaryAnalysisInterval: PT10M
    lifetime: PT90M
    marginalScore: 75
    passScore: 90
    capacity: 2
      account: appaccount
      cloudProvider: aws
      cluster: app-prod
      - us-east-1
      - us-west-2
      - eu-west-1
    minSuccessfulRegions: 2

Interacting with and Overriding Constraints

Apart from the depends-on constraint, all constraint types either expect interaction from a user (in the case of manual-judgement ) or can have their automated judgements overruled by a user.

Approving or rejecting Manual Judgement constraints from Slack

If your operator has configured Slack app integration with Spinnaker, then a very convenient way to approve managed deployments gated by a Manual Judgement constraint is to use interactive Slack notifications.

All you need to do is set up Slack notifications in your delivery config, which will enable interactive notifications to a Slack channel of your choice, where you can simply click a button to approve or reject the deployment of the artifact into the environment.

Consider the following simplified delivery config:

name: myspinapp
application: myspinapp
serviceAccount: myteam@mycompany.com
- name: myspinapp
  type: deb
- name: test
  - type: manual-judgement
  - type: slack
    address: "#myteam"
    frequency: verbose
  - apiVersion: bakery.spinnaker.netflix.com/v1
    kind: image
      artifactName: myspinapp
      baseLabel: RELEASE
      baseOs: xenial
      - us-east-1
      storeType: EBS
      application: myspinapp  
  - apiVersion: "ec2.spinnaker.netflix.com/v1"
    kind: "cluster"
        app: "myspinapp"
          name: "myspinapp"
          type: "deb"
        account: "test"
        - name: "us-east-1"

Upon evaluating whether a new Debian artifact for myspinapp should be deployed into the test environment, Spinnaker will gate the deployment on the manual-judgement constraint and send a notification that looks like the following to the #myteam Slack channel.

Once a user in the channel clicks on the Approve button, the notification changes to reflect the approval:

:warning: Note that the frequency setting for notifications does not affect this behavior – interactive notifications will always be sent unless your operator has chosen to disable this feature entirely on your company’s instance of Spinnaker.

APIs to interact with constraints

In addition to Slack integration, the following API endpoints are currently available to interact with constraints.

Note: we limit to one delivery config per app, so these APIs currently use app name.

Reading status of pending and recent constraints

  • GET https://gate/managed/application/{application}/environment/{environment-name}/constraints?limit=20

Returns: List<ConstraintState> consisting of:

  String deliveryConfigName;
  String environmentName;
  String artifactVersion;
  String type;
  String status;
  Instant createdAt;
  String judgedBy;
  Instant judgedAt;
  String comment;
  Map<String, Object> attributes;

Setting or Overriding Constraint State

  • POST https://gate/managed/application/{application}/environment/{environment-name}/constraint

POST Body:

  "type": "canary",
  "artifactVersion":  "fnord-1.2.3",
  "status": "OVERRIDE_PASS",
  "comment": "overriding false positive kayenta failure"